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Overview of Key Technologies in 5G Wireless Communication System


5G system air interface technology


According to the relevant technical regulations and standards, the air interface technology of high-speed network transmission must meet the requirement of 1G/s network high-speed transmission bandwidth that can satisfy the ultra-high-definition video network and related video and audio on-demand systems. In addition, the unmanned electric vehicle system also requires that the delay level of network transmission must be less than 1 millisecond per minute. The Internet of Things and intelligent network sensors that can be used per square kilometer must be able to meet the multi-level and complex network business work of hundreds of thousands of high-speed network connection users.


New multi-antenna transmission technology for 5G system


In the application of 5G wireless communication technology, the application of new multi-antenna technology is the majority. Under this technology, the spectrum resources can be maximally utilized, thereby reducing the use of the same information data spectrum resources in wireless communication technology applications. Based on this multi-antenna transmission technology, the corresponding transmission matrix can be formed in the transmission network, mainly to prevent interference from other factors during transmission, which may affect transmission quality. Through the application of the new multi-antenna transmission technology, the edge users’ demand for efficient wireless network services can be met. In addition, technology developers can fully utilize the advantages of this technology, effectively, reasonably, and scientifically allocate spectrum resources, comprehensively consider the actual differences in user needs, master the spatial distribution, and build a sound plan. In general, the application of new multi-antenna transmission technology truly achieves the “one-to-many” service model and provides essential support for the application and development of 5G system wireless communication technology.


Content distribution network technology for 5G system


The content distribution network is an initiating point for dealing with Internet access quality. In the usual content transmission mode, the content is transmitted from the content provider's server. With the increase of Internet access, the load on the server increases, the congestion problem on the Internet increases, and the reaction speed of the website slows significantly. For websites that are under heavy stress, it is challenging to provide high-quality service to users. Using CDN technology in wireless networks to speed up network access is a natural choice for various wireless networks and an essential technology for 5G system.


Green communication technology for 5G system


The current communication technology has been widely applied in various fields of society. However, in the application process, the problems of super-dense station site and high-power-consuming network equipment are particularly prominent. With the public’s close attention to the soaring carbon emissions, if this problem is not effectively resolved, it will seriously affect the sustainable development of communication technology. From the current engineering construction, the introduction of new functions and technologies such as 5G multi-antenna and large bandwidth has increased the power consumption by 2-3 times compared to 4G.


High-frequency transmission technology for 5G system


The focus of high-frequency transmission is to increase the number of frequency bands and realize multi-frequency band transmission to improve transmission efficiency. In the 5G system wireless communication technology, there are many frequency bands that support data transmission requirements. This also means that relevant technical personnel need to use higher technology to adjust the working frequency band of the radio frequency device to match 5G wireless communication technology application. Due to the diversified development of communication technology at present, there is indeed some difficulty in matching low-frequency spectrum for 5G wireless communication technology application. To solve this problem, it is necessary to introduce high-frequency transmission technology to achieve the requirement of frequency band use for 5G wireless communication technology, to change the problem of congested low-frequency spectrum transmission in the past, and to effectively improve data transmission efficiency. It should be noted that in this process, whether the medium in the air will interfere with and affect signal quality should be considered. If it exists, it needs to be solved to promote the development of high-frequency band transmission.

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